QUALITY

Establishing the Quality Requirements:

The first step for quality control is to understand, establish & accept the customers' quality requirements. This involves the following steps.

  • Getting customers specifications regarding the quality
  • Referring our past performance
  • Discussing with the Quality Control Department
  • Discussing with the Production Department
  • Giving the Feed Back to the customers
  • Receiving the revised quality requirements from the customers
  • Accepting the quality parameters
  • Various Steps of Inspection & Quality Control:
    The following levels are discussed at the Garment Making Department assuming that this department is receiving the ready to cut dyed & finished fabrics from the Dyeing & Finishing Department.

Before or Pre-production Inspection

The following parameters & defects are checked prior to cutting.

  • Shade Matching
  • Fabric Construction
  • GSM (grams per square metre)
  • Whales & courses if required
  • Diameter
  • Dyeing Levelness
  • Ecological parameters if required
  • Softness
  • Shrinkage
  • Matching of Rib, Collars & Cuffs
  • Fabric Holes
  • Vertical & Horizontal Stripes
  • Knitting defects such as missing loops, sinker lines, etc.
  • Bowing
  • Skewing
  • Yarn defects such as thick & thin places
  • Dirts & Stains
  • During Production Inspection
  • Verify cutting patterns
  • Cut components measurements
  • Cutting shapes
  • Fabric defects
  • Other specific parameters as required by the customers Rib, Collars & Cuffs matching
  • Stitching defects
  • Sewing threads matching
  • Dirts & Stains
  • Measurements
  • Labels
  • Trims & Accessories

Before Production Inspection

Many of the important parameters of Pre-productions, During productions & Final inspection parameters. This is to ensure that wrong or major defective garments are not packed.

Final Inspection

A. PACKING & ASSORTMENT

  • Wrong Model
  • Wrong Quantity
  • Missing labels & tags
  • Wrong Size & Colour assortment
  • Wrong Folding

B. FABRIC DEFECTS

  • Wrong Shade
  • Uneven dyeing
  • Holes
  • Knitting stripes
  • Thick & Thin places
  • Dirt & Stains
  • Oil stains
  • Sinker line
  • Poor softness
  • Higher Shrinkage
  • Crease Marks

C. WORKMANSHIP DEFECTS

  • Open seam
  • Puckering
  • Needle holes & marks
  • Unbalanced sleeve edge
  • Unbalanced placket
  • Insecure shoulder stitch
  • Incorrect side shape
  • Bottom hem bowing
  • Uneven neck shape
  • Cross labels
  • Broken & Missing stitch
  • Insecured buttons
  • Untrimmed threads & fabrics
  • Poor Ironing
  • Double stitch

D. GENERAL DEFECTS

  • Shade variation within the garment parts
  • Shade variation between the garments
  • Defective printing
  • Defective embroidery
  • Defective buttons

E. MEASUREMENT DEVIATIONS

  • Compare the garment measurements against the Customers' Measurement Charts.
  • Following are the some of the important garments' measurement aspects to be considered.
  • Garment length
  • Body width
  • Shoulder length
  • Arm hole
  • Arm Opening
  • Sleeve length
  • Placket length
  • Placket width
  • Neck width
  • Neck opening
  • Hemming width
  • IRib or Collar width

AQL ( Acceptable Quality Level )

A certain proportion of defective will always occur in any manufacturing process. If the percentage does not exceed a certain limit, it will be economical to allow the defective to go through instead of screening the entire lot. This limit is called the "Acceptable Quality Level" ( AQL ) Considering the practical & economic aspects, Sampling Techniques are adopted to Accept or Reject a Lot on the basis of the Samples drawn at Random from the lot. It has been found and accepted that a scientifically designed sampling & inspection plan protects a Manufacturer as well as the Buyer economically.

American Military Standards known as MIL-STD-105A to 105E is accepted world-wide for sampling sizes. It has the following sample size levels. Normally for Garment Industry 105D or 105E are followed.

Special Inspection Levels ( S1, S2, S3 & S4 )

General Inspection Levels ( I, II & III )

It has various AQL levels from 0.040 to 25 for Accepting or Rejecting the lots. Normally for Garment industry, the AQL levels of 2.5, 4.0 and 6.5 are followed.

Ecological Parameters:

Now all the Customers are asking for Ecological Parameters. Now European Buyers are stressing this. Following are main Ecological Parameters to be considered.

  • pH range
  • Formaldehyde levels
  • Extractable heavy metals
  • Chlorinated phenols ( PCP, TeCP)
  • Forbidden Amines of MAK III A1& A2 categories
  • Pesticides
  • Chlorinated Organic carriers
  • Biocide finishes
  • Flame retardant finishes
  • Colour fastness to Water
  • Colour fastness to acid & alkali perspiration
  • Colour fastness to wet & dry rubbing
  • Colour fastness to saliva
  • Emission of volatile chemicals
  • Other specific parameters as required by the customers

QUALITY

If you have quality control team, role of the quality are likely...
To check raw materials and confirm for use in cutting, sewing processes.
Check cutting quality, patterns, cut parts.
Check sewing process, do 100% inspection of stitched pieces and move quality garment for finishing.
Checks garments after washing and finishing stage up to packing of goods.
All the above checks are necessary to avoid failure of final inspection, rejection of shipments and control over manufacturing cost.
It is to be noted that importance of controlling garment quality may vary for the other part of the supply chain.